Syncope can be described as a brief loss of consciousness that occurred due to violations of cerebral circulation, accompanied by his oxygen starvation.
Often fainting are the result of the occurrence of pathologic processes, leading to poor circulation and low oxygen in the blood: heart rhythm disorders, atherosclerosis, hypertension and hypotension, internal bleeding, myocardial infarction, anemia and other blood diseases.
In relatively healthy people to faint can lead to strong or sudden emotional-mental stress, a painful shock, a sharp transition from horizontal to vertical position, intake of antihypertensive drugs, body overheating, sunstroke and stay in a stuffy room.
Syncope is usually preceded by lightheadedness, which can be observed General weakness, lightheadedness, nausea, yawning, and dizziness. Does the noise in my ears, in the eyes of the dark or flashes, numbness of hands and feet.
In case of fainting and loss of consciousness skin pales dramatically, becoming ashy gray and covered with cold clammy sweat, the muscles of the body relaxed, hands and feet unnaturally cold. Breath superficial, arterial pressure falls, pulse is present with difficulty, can be as frequent filiform and very rare. The pupils of the eyes dilated, reaction to light is practically absent.
Duration of syncope is usually from 1 to 2 minutes. In particularly difficult cases, when protracted swoon that lasts more than 5 minutes are observed twitching of muscles, salivation, uncontrolled urination and defecation
First person who loses consciousness should not give to fall, preventing it from receiving injuries in the fall. The next step should be putting him on his back in a horizontal position, while under his feet it is advisable to enclose any available object (a bag, a pillow, a chair) so that they are above head level.
Need to unbutton a shirt collar or belt, remove tight clothing, thus the person normal breathing and fresh air. Moisten cotton wool with ammonia, bring her to the nose of an unconscious. In the absence of ammonia will fit any strong-smelling substances: alcohol, vinegar, Cologne, acetone or even gasoline.
The torso and legs need to be warm and to warm bottles. If bottles are not at hand, warming can be performed using a light dry brushing of limbs and trunk. After the person wakes up, he should be given a drink of sweet strong tea or coffee.
If, despite the measures taken, the consciousness returns within 5-8 minutes, you should immediately call the medical emergency team.
In case of recurrent attacks of loss of consciousness, the patient must see a doctor for medical examination and to identify the causes of fainting.