Myocardial infarction is called acute form of ischemic heart disease caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle – the myocardium. Cardiac arteries supplying the heart with blood, oxygen, and over time become covered from the inside of the sclerotic plaques, making the blood vessel is extremely vulnerable.
When under load one of sclerotic plaques (and with it — and the inner wall of the blood vessel of the heart) is destroyed, the body tries to "repair" the damage, thickening the blood in place of "accident". This results in a thrombus, completely occluding the vessel. Obstructing delivery of blood to the heart can occur even due to the compression of an artery because of its sharp spasm.
Cardiac muscle, or rather, its plot is lacking oxygen and if within 20 minutes after the onset of a heart attack the blood supply is not restored, there is a destruction of myocardial cells. Necrosis of cardiac muscle cells can lead to serious complications such as heart rhythm disorders, inflammation of the heart bag, pulmonary edema, recurrent infarction, and it is possible full cardiac arrest.
The most common cause of myocardial infarction is atherosclerosis, in which different affected almost everyone. Increase the likelihood of heart attack increased content of cholesterol in the blood, heredity, Smoking and alcohol abuse, a sedentary lifestyle in the company of overweight, diabetes and hypertension.
To provoke the attack a heart attack can severe physical or emotional burden, but often it occurs for no apparent reason. The maximum number of attacks of myocardial infarction accounted for early in the morning, when the body is transitioning from sleep to wakefulness.
Signs and symptoms
The main symptom of the beginning of an attack of myocardial infarction are pain different from pain that occurs in angina. In the case of a heart attack have a strong and unbearable pain lasting more than 20 minutes, sometimes lasting several hours. Nitroglycerin, instantly relieving the pain during an attack of angina pectoris, in this case, does not help or has little effect.
Localization of pain in myocardial infarction is usually as follows: the middle of the chest, arm, shoulder, back, neck and jaw. There are also atypical forms of myocardial infarction, in which pain is manifested in a non-standard location, which complicates the initial diagnosis. It happens that the heart wears a mask, hiding behind a sharp pain in the shoulder or the elbow joint, arising without apparent reason. Moreover, one can avail to take painkillers, believing that he had a pinched nerve, or cervical osteochondrosis, although at this time the myocardium slowly dies from lack of oxygen. Described even cases of myocardial infarction has proved to a regular toothache.
You should know that a sudden severe pain in the stomach combined with nausea, hiccups, vomiting, and gas is not a symptom of gastritis, ulcers, appendicitis, pancreatitis or food poisoning, signs of abdominal form of heart attack.
People with diabetes or in extreme conditions, while performing particularly important tasks, attack of myocardial infarction can pass in a painless form. In such cases, the person can move the heart attack on legs, having learned about it only after medical examination. Sometimes more tragic: man completes the surgery, the plane sits down, finishes a responsible statement, leaves... and dies.
In the form of asthmatic onset of myocardial infarction, occurring most often in older people, there is a dry cough, an attack of suffocation for lack of oxygen and respiratory disorders. Pain may be absent completely.
Cerebral form of heart attack is manifested by symptoms similar to stroke and impending stroke, and when defiecency the form of onset of myocardial infarction in a patient arises the pain is in combination with feeling stuck in the esophagus of a foreign object that cannot be swallowed.
Procedure in the case the debut of myocardial infarction
Upon the slightest suspicion of myocardial infarction should be urgently call the ambulance or immediately deliver the patient to a private or passing transport to a medical school. The fact is that if during the first 90 minutes to enter in the patient's blood, special drugs that dissolve the clot, restore coronary artery normal blood flow, the heart muscle will suffer minimum damage.
Before the arrival of ambulance the patient must be laid or comfortably seat to provide him access to fresh air, loosen belt, collar, bra. Give under the tongue tablet of nitroglycerin and 30-40 drops korvalola to reduce the pain and relieve the state of panic. In the event of cardiac arrest immediately start doing artificial respiration and cardiac massage, and fulfill them prior to the arrival of the medical teams.
Myocardial infarction is not a sentence, correctly and in a timely manner a definite beginning of the attack the complex with well-rendered first aid allow in most cases to achieve a successful recovery of the patient.
Be always healthy!