Inside the man's head, to be exact – around the nose, there are four pairs of air cavities, called okolonosovykh the sinuses or the sinuses. All of them through the membranes are reported with the nasal cavity. In case of contact with these sinus virus or bacteria inside their develop inflammatory processes.
Due edema the escape of air and mucus from the sinuses either difficult, or not at all. The air and the selection pressure on the walls of the paranasal sinuses, causing pain. The pain can also be caused by the formation of a vacuum in the sinuses due to an inflammation of the sinus membrane. These are called acute sinusitis. If their symptoms recur frequently or are observed for 8 weeks or longer, such sinusitis are chronic.
Depending on the localization of inflammation sinusitis sinusitis is divided into (1), etmoidit (2), sphenoidale (3) and frontal sinusitis (4).
In the case of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses due to the common cold, measles, scarlet fever or influenza, talk about the sinusitis. When sinusitis the inflammation is located in the frontal paranasal sinus surgery, and the reasons are the same as in the sinus.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the ethmoid cells is called ethmoiditis, most often it occurs when the disease scarlet fever. Rare inflammation of the mucous membrane of the sphenoid sinus is called steroidit.
Causes of sinusitis and its main symptoms are:
Respiratory viral infection (common cold) is the most common cause of acute sinusitis. In simplified form it looks like this: after getting the viruses in the nasal cavity, trigger the protective mechanisms of the human body that increases the production of mucus and lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa.
On its inner surface there is inflammation accompanied by swelling. Because the paranasal sinuses have a message with the nasal cavity, the inflammatory process is transferred to the mucosa of the sinuses, causing swelling and making it difficult the exit of mucus and air from the cavity of the sinuses. Thereby creating favorable conditions for the development of bacteria that are always available in the upper respiratory tract. In the case of a weakened immune system the bacteria multiply rapidly and actively, triggering inflammatory process – sinusitis. Often activation of bacterial flora contributes to the banal hypothermia.
Causes of chronic sinusitis are most often bronchial asthma, immune system deficiency and various allergic reactions.
Unpleasant sensations in the nose and okolonosovyh the field, changing over time in pain in the upper jaw, between the eyes and around the nose wings, forehead and neck, nasal congestion, runny nose with profuse discharge are the most typical symptoms of sinusitis. Besides these, there are a rise in body temperature, General weakness, fatigue, insomnia and lack of appetite.
Treatment and prevention
Medical treatment of sinusitis is to use drops, sprays and inhalers with the active ingredients tetryzoline, naphazoline, Xylometazoline and Oxymetazoline. They reduce swelling of the mucous membrane due to sivane vessels, facilitating the withdrawal of mucus from the paranasal sinuses and restoring the circulation of air.
To cure sinusitis use physiotherapy ultraviolet irradiation and UHF, and in case of complications resort to surgery in the form of execution of the puncture, through which the first pump out mucus and pus, and then injected into the sinus anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs.
In addition to medication, a good support would be medical procedures that are performed at home. The most famous and widespread of them — washing the nose with warm salted water and steam inhalation. Moisturizes the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and promotes drainage of mucus from the adoption of a hot shower. Phlegm and mucus from the paranasal sinuses will help flush drinking a lot of plain clean water.
At the time of treatment of sinusitis it is recommended to abstain from Smoking, drinking coffee and alcohol.
Sinusitis prevention is the timely treatment of colds and infectious diseases, elimination of precipitating factors in the form of atresia, adhesions and distortion of the nasal septum. Equally important is the strengthening of the immune system.Always remember that sinusitis is dangerous for its complications. Inflammation of the optic nerve, meninges (meningitis) and suppurative lesions in the bones okolonosovyh region (osteomyelitis) — the most formidable of them.
Take care of yourself! Be always healthy!