How to recognize pneumonia. Pneumonia: symptoms and treatment

Pneumonia is a severe and dangerous disease, fraught with multiple complications. That is why it is important to be able to distinguish it from other infectious diseases.

2015-12-06 04:10:38 111

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pneumonia

Pneumonia is a group of diseases associated with inflammation of lung tissue, in which there is lesion of the alveoli and the lung tissue. In most cases, pneumonia is an infectious nature, and the most common cause of the disease is a weakening of the immune system of the body. Often pneumonia affects children under 3 years of age, seniors over 65, persons suffering from diabetes mellitus and diseases of the cardiovascular system, patients who have undergone surgery. The risk group includes HIV-positive, suffering from drug and alcohol addiction.

Symptoms and causes

The cause of the inflammatory process in the lungs is the revitalization and rapid multiplication of streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci, Mycoplasma, chlamydia, Legionella and Klebsiella, adenoviruses, influenza viruses and parainfluenza, a variety of fungi and protozoa. Bacteria and germs can enter the body like lungs together with the inhaled air, and in the process of active migration of these pathogens constantly present in the nasopharynx of man. Immunoparalysis medications, hypothermia, and viral infections weaken the body's defenses, resulting in the human immune system loses ability to fight infection, and the result is the development of the inflammatory process. Cause of pneumonia can also be inhalation of gases, vapours of chemical compounds and poisonous substances. Rare, but observed, cases of pneumonia, caused by medical intervention in the work of the body. Due to the diversity of forms and types of pneumonia are as varied and their symptoms. In lobar pneumonia when the alveoli are affected and adjacent areas of the pleura, there is a sharp increase in body temperature to 400 C, there is increased sweating and chills, the patient complains of headache, weakness. Possible nausea turning into vomiting and confusion. Characteristic symptom of croupous pneumonia are acute pain in the chest. At the beginning of the disease cough with expectoration of a rusty color and a small amount of blood. The breathing heart (up to 40 breaths per minute), often turning into shortness of breath, the pulse quickens to 100 beats per minute, blood pressure slightly reduced. The situation is quite different when focal pneumonia caused by chronic inflammation of the bronchi and upper respiratory tract. Its symptoms are less pronounced: the body temperature rarely rises above 380 C, dry cough, sputum slight, with deep breathing and coughing possible deaf pain in the inflammation. The main tool of diagnosis of pneumonia is x-rays and blood tests, and laboratory analysis of sputum produced during coughing, allows to establish its nature. If necessary perform a bronchoscopy, which allows examining the bronchi and take a sample of mucus from inflammation.

Treatment

Regardless of the nature of pneumonia, the treatment of all types of this disease is impossible without the use of antibiotics. Due to the fact that the pathogens (viruses and bacteria) become insensitive to the action of penicillin, in most cases for the treatment of pneumonia using antibiotics second and third generations: amoxicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, levofloxacin, cephalosporin, clavulanate, sulfamethoxazole, and others. Due to the fact that the use of antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia caused by influenza viruses and parainfluenza, rhinovirus or adenovirus, to give a weak effect was a useful addition to antiviral drugs. In the case of such fungal forms of pneumonia, cryptococcosis, blastomycosis, aspergillosis and histoplasmosis, the necessary drugs, selectively acting on each species of fungus. Treatment of pneumonia at home is permissible only in the case when the diagnosis is not in doubt, and the disease is mild and without complications. In all other cases without hospitalization in the therapeutic Department can not do, because only there you can perform a full clinical examination and to conduct intensive therapy. Pneumonia dangerous complications that threaten not only health but also human life. Pleurisy, empyema, obstruction, abscess and gangrene of the lung, sepsis, pulmonary edema, pericarditis and meningitis are only a part of their list. Remember that in the case of inadequate treatment, the pneumonia can result in death. Take care of yourself! Be always healthy!


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