- How to choose the battery. Types of batteries, their sizes, markings, and scope
How to choose the battery. Types of batteries, their sizes, markings, and scope
In most cases, an ordinary buyer when selecting the batteries only pays attention to its size and the name of the manufacturer. And it is in vain.
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The main advantage of salt batteries that distinguish them among all other types of power sources is their low cost. As the electrolyte used is a solution of ammonium chloride.
Each of the electrodes placed in a separate electrolyte, United with other electrolytes by a salt bridge.
The disadvantages of saline food sources are small (up to 24 months) of shelf life loss of the battery 40% capacity by the end of the retention period and the almost complete drop in capacitance at sub-zero ambient temperatures.
Alkaline (alkaline) batteries gets its name due to the chemical composition of the electrolyte comprising potassium hydroxide. The electrodes of alkaline power sources made of manganese dioxide and zinc.
Alkaline batteries have a high tightness of the casing and insensitive to low temperatures. Their warranty period up to 5 years, and the loss of capacity in the first year of storage is not more than 10%.
Of the disadvantages of alkaline batteries can distinguish falling discharge curve, higher cost and weight than saline batteries. Alkaline batteries can be uniquely identified by the inscription ALKALINE in their body.
Lithium batteries consist of lithium cathode separated from the anode by a separator and a diaphragm with an organic electrolyte.
An important property of lithium power sources – low dependence of the capacity on the load current, so they are the most "hardy" among all other types of batteries.
The shelf life of such power sources is up to 15 years, and during all this time the battery does not lose capacity. Another advantage of lithium batteries is the possibility of operation at low ambient temperatures.
Their only drawback is the high cost, they are more expensive than alkaline batteries 4-5 times. Lithium batteries can be easily distinguished from others on the put on their body inscriptions LITHIUM.
Mercury batteries have a cathode made of mercury oxide, anode — zinc, the electrolyte is alkaline solution. Mercury batteries have high capacity and energy density, have a long (up to 10 years) shelf life, resistant to temperature extremes.
The disadvantages of mercury batteries include their high cost and the difficulty of disposing of used batteries.
According to its technical and operational characteristics to mercury power sources very close to silver batteries with a zinc anode, a cathode of silver oxide and an alkaline electrolyte. They also have high energy intensity and constancy of the voltage stored up to 10 years, resistant to high and low ambient temperatures.
The silver batteries have a high cost, but, unlike mercury power sources have a higher specific capacity and do not pose a threat to health in case of their depressurization.
The most common classification system for the sizes of batteries is the American letter system, in which depending on the shape and size of power supplies they are assigned to a certain alphanumeric code.
Marking of batteries
The type of battery
the details of the choice of batteries
Use manganese batteries as a power source suitable for devices that consume small (up to 10mA) current. Remote controls, wall and table clocks, digital scales and thermometers, testers – here is a partial list of such consumers.
For devices with moderate and high power consumption (10 to 200 mA) it is recommended to use alkaline batteries. Such devices include radios, music players, digital cameras, electronic blood pressure monitors and children's toys, are equipped with electric motors.
Alkaline power sources can be inserted into devices with low energy consumption, for example, in a wall clock or remote control. Then the time until the next replacement of batteries, in comparison to the salt, will increase by several times.
Lithium batteries can serve as power source for virtually any electronic device. The only question is how economically feasible to use expensive lithium battery in an electronic thermometer with a negligible current consumption?
The use of lithium batteries is justified for electronics and digital devices with high power consumption.
Silver demand in batteries as miniature power supplies to motherboards of computers and laptops, calculators, watches and other electronic devices. The reason for this is the high cost of silver.
Mercury batteries are now practically not used, although even twenty years ago were indispensable in communication, military industry, aviation and medical devices.
Good luck to you! Let your chosen batteries are a reliable power source for your home and digital technology!