- How to choose antifreeze. Kinds and types of coolant
How to choose antifreeze. Kinds and types of coolant
About one third of engine failures are associated with failures of the cooling system. Many of them can be avoided by properly selecting and executing the timely replacement of antifreeze.
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What is antifreeze
Antifreeze — coolant for automobile engines comprising ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, distilled water, special additives and dye. Because the freezing point of antifreeze considerably below the freezing point of water, using it as a coolant helps to avoid engine damage and the details of its cooling system due to the increase in volume of freezing fluid.
vs Antifreeze "Antifreeze"
To deal with the confusion around these two concepts, explain that "Antifreeze" is only one type of antifreeze, developed in the Soviet Union in the laboratory of technology of Organic Synthesis, and the brand name is not an abbreviation of laboratory. Industrial production of "Antifreeze" was established in the times of the USSR and this kind of antifreeze has been successfully produced and bought in the post-Soviet space happy owners of "Lada", "Muscovites" and "Volga".
Together with the appearance on our roads of foreign cars, in the automotive process fluids market appeared foreign brands of antifreeze.
Carboxylate and silicate antifreeze
The silicate antifreezes, which include "Antifreeze", as the additives are salts of inorganic acids, silicates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates and borates. The main component of additives – silicates – have some significant drawbacks that adversely affect the operation of the entire cooling system of the engine.
Settling on the inner surface of the channels of the cooling system, they protect it from corrosion, because the ethylene glycol is quite corrosive to metals, but at the same time, having a low thermal conductivity affect the heat transfer, particularly in complex and severe cases leading to overheating and premature engine wear.
Furthermore, additives based on silicates through 30 thousand kilometers are depleted, losing corrosion resistance and opening the way to corrosion.
Carboxylate antifreeze is made on the basis of organic acids, lack many of the drawbacks of liquid coolants with additives of silicates. They operate in a broader temperature range, without losing their operational properties and form a protective layer only in areas where corrosion, deteriorating the heat transfer of the engine.
Antifreezes based on carboxylates are stable, do not form a precipitate, clogging the channels of the cooling system and do not become gels after some time, as is often the case with their silicate counterparts.
The composition of the carboxylate antifreeze is depleted much more slowly, increasing the life of the coolants based on organic acid, which is usually more than 200 thousand kilometers.
Classification of antifreeze
Class of antifreezes G11 includes the cheapest coolants, including ethylene glycol and a minor amount of additives based on silicates, which give antifreeze anticorrosion, antifoaming and lubricity. Has a low cost, but the lifespan of them is limited to just a few tens of thousands of kilometers.
G12 class of antifreezes based on ethylene glycol and carboxylate additives. Have more stable and sophisticated properties that last longer, but are much more expensive.
G13 – a family of eco-friendly coolants. Due to the use as a refrigerant propylene glycol is not harmful to the environment because the class G13 antifreeze is not toxic and faster degradable. As the additives are carboxylates. Most expensive among all other classes of antifreezes.
When to change the coolant
Antifreeze should be replaced if discoloration, staining in brown color, the appearance of a precipitate or the formation on the walls and the neck of the expansion tank of a gel-like mass.
Antifreeze that has lost its properties begins to foam, deteriorating the heat transfer of the engine, and corrode the metal parts of the engine and cooling system.
What antifreeze to choose
It's simple – should be guided by the requirements of coolant for a manufacturer's specific model of the car and set out in the passport of the car. Advice on the choice of antifreeze is also available at service centers or authorized service centers.
what to look for when buying
Capacity or the can of antifreeze should be aesthetic and durable, close lid, equipped with a plastic seal-ratchet. The label must contain: the manufacturer, full details, date of manufacture and shelf life of the coolant.
The translucent liquid inside of the canisters must not have flakes and sediment, and the foam is generated by shaking of the packaging should settle in three seconds.
When pressed on the container of antifreeze, it should not go air, but when turning the canister upside down from under the lid should not be anything to leak.During the planned replacement of antifreeze in anticipation of the winter frosts, don't forget to also replace the engine oil, brake fluid and stekloomyvateli.
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